# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you think about numbers nowadays, the first thing that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize daily. This system, however, is not the single approach to portray numericals. There are multiple methods used by distinct cultures around the world that utilize all kinds of characters. One such method is Roman numerals.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a way of expressing numbers utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. It remained throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still educated in school, that is possibly why you have stumbled upon this blog.

Now, we are going to check out Roman numerals, what they are, how they function, and how to change Roman numbers to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's take a brief look at the history of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the historic Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were employed in many angles of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Currently, its extensive use is primarily attributed to artistic reasons. You might have seen Roman numerals as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman numeral system consist of numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to form groups that depict numbers. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then combine these numbers to depict any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numerals are established on linear and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman number's numeric values are founded on the sum of the values of its individual parts. One more major distinction is that the decimal method is founded on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we take a look at the number in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman numerals is described by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series employing the properties we will talk about subsequently in the article.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last to enter the original trilogy. Looking at the value represented, it comprises a V followed by an I. Therefore, we will include a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th to enter the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is important to get a grasp of the numeric value of all the letters. To assist you make this function easy, here is a chart with all Latin alphabets with assigned numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numbers to Decimal Numericals

Since we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can use that information to transform numbers back and forth quickly. Following these steps, you will transform these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Change Roman numerals to Regular Numbers

To change Roman numerals to decimal numericals, we will use the linear and subtractive principles we discussed.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then add the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is more in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process until you reach the end of the Roman number group.

Let's check out how you can convert Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Because 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and get 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we add the two values and the result is 76.

We halt here at the end of the Roman number group. Consequently, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Because 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and get 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Since we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our result. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the regular number 1903.

With this information and a some practice, you will transform Roman numerals to decimal numbers like an expert!

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